Motivation - Expectancy Theory
One of the key tasks of the leader is to try to influence subordinates to put more effort into fulfilling the goals of the organisation.
The most satisfactory approach to this task has been outlined by "expectancy" theory which says that individuals will put more effort into their work when they can see a link between performance, effort and rewards such that:
1. Increased effort will lead to increased performance
|This has implications in terms of the employees basic capability but
also in terms of factors within the managers control such as whether the
2. Increased performance leads to rewards
|The employee must be clear that increasing performance will result in
rewards being given to him/her.
3. The rewards are important to the individual
|The rewards must be those that the individual values and wants for the approach to work. People, however, differ widely in the aspects of work that they place value in.|
4. Perception of links
|The individual must be able to see that these links exist before they will change their behaviour.|
There are a number of implications of this approach for managers. They should:
- Be aware of the rewards that they have available.
- Find out which rewards are important to individual employees.
- Give appropriate rewards when performance improves.
- Ensure that employees have the ability to change their effort
- setting clear goals/objectives coaching/training
- allocation of resources.
- Make it clear that they will selectively provide rewards -thus shaping the individuals expectations.